One of the success of nation building is determined by the quality of human resources owned. This is in line with President Jokowi’s fifth Nawacita which states “improving people’s welfare through improving the quality of life of Indonesian people”. Through the fifth Nawacita, a high government commitment to human development is seen. In 2045, or thirty years from now, almost 60 percent of Indonesia’s population is under 30 years old. It can be said, Indonesia will get a demographic bonus. This means that in terms of number there will be more people of productive age and education compared to the previous period.
This demographic bonus can give a good signal, but if it is not used it will be a disaster. Moreover, if not invested with health, education, and character, the population of this productive age will become a liability, not an asset. One of the demographic bonuses is caused by the population growth rate that is not controlled. If not utilized, it can cause gaps and have an impact on poverty. The reason is the imbalance of the population with the available jobs, the amount of food and nutrition, and the opportunity to take education unevenly. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor as measured by the Gini ratio will be wider. For this reason, the government needs to play a role in controlling the rate of population growth. During the New Order era,
This institution which was established in 1970 has managed to control the rate of growth of Indonesia’s population. Availability of supporting infrastructure for socialization including funds and other supporting devices, the Family Planning program can be carried out in a structured manner. With the enactment of regional autonomy, the role as controlling population growth shifts to the Regional Government. The Family Planning Program that has been managed by the Central Government has also been transferred to the Regional Government. Looking at the Gini ratio data which currently does not meet expectations, it can be said that the focus of the local government to prioritize the Family Planning program is still lacking.
To overcome inequality and take advantage of demographic bonus opportunities, of course coordination between Ministries is key. Each Ministry has its own program, both in terms of education, health, and job preparation. The government through the Ministry of Finance continues to fulfill the mandate of the Law related to the amount of the education budget up to 20 percent of the APBN. There must be cooperation and coordination to avoid replication and overlapping policies.